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First Aid: What to do in an emergency (DR’s ABC)

When an emergency or incident arises where there are casualties, think DR’s ABC:

Danger

Response

Shout

Airway

Breathing

Circulation

Danger

Check for signs of danger to you or the casualty, such as oncoming traffic, broken glass or fallen debris. Only approach them when it is safe or when you have made the area safe.

Response

Ask the person “Are you okay?” Ask them to open their eyes. If there’s no response, give them a gentle shake. For children, tap their shoulder. For babies, tap their foot. If they respond, treat them as conscious. If there is no response, move on to the next step.

Shout for help

Shout loud and clear to alert other people to what’s going on, and to get someone to call 999 while you deal with the casualty.

Airway

Make sure the person’s airway is kept open. Turn them onto their back and open the airway using the head tilt/chin lift method. Put your hand on their forehead and two fingers under their chin. Lift the chin and tilt the head back gently.

Breathing

Check for signs of breathing. Look for movement in the person’s chest. Listen for breathing sounds. Bend down to see if you can feel any breath on your cheek. If there are no signs of breathing, or if you’re not sure, call 999 or 112 and perform CPR. As soon as they start breathing again, place them in the recovery position until help arrives.

Circulation

If the person is bleeding, use clothing, towels or any clean material to stop it. Call 999 or 112 and stay with the person to monitor their breathing and responsiveness until help arrives.

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First Aid: What is the Recovery Position?

The recovery position is used when a person is unconscious but is still breathing. It keeps the airways clear and open and ensures that vomit or other fluids do not cause choking.

To put someone in the recovery position, follow these 10 steps:

  1. Remove glasses if they are wearing them
  2. Kneel on one side of their body and make sure their legs are straight
  3. Place their arm nearest to you at a right angle to their body, palm up
  4. Bring their other arm across their chest and place the back of their hand against their cheek
  5. Raise the knee of their far leg so their foot remains on the floor
  6. Roll them over on their side making sure to support their head
  7. Tilt their head back gently to keep the airways open
  8. Adjust the hand under their cheek so the head points downward to let material drain from the mouth
  9. Bend their upper leg so that their hip and knee are at right angles
  10. Check for breathing and either dial 999 or get someone to do it

After 30 minutes, turn them over on the opposite side to relieve pressure on their lower arm. If breathing stops before help arrives, phone 999 again and begin CPR.

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First Aid: Nellie the Elephant & CPR

When giving someone CPR, you pump the chest 30 times and then give 2 rescue breaths. You need to give between 90 and 100 pumps or compressions of the chest per minute, but how can you tell if you’re reaching that target?

One way to do it is to pump the chest in time with the rhythm of a song. For example, think of the tune Nellie the Elephant. While giving chest compressions, run through the song in your head. This will guarantee that you keep the correct rate and rhythm and will give you the confidence to know you’re doing things right.

Simply run through the chorus of the song, which should give you exactly 30 compressions. Here are the words to the chorus, with syllables in bold showing pumps to the chest.

Nel-lie the El-ephant packed her trunk

And said goodbye to the circus

Off she went with a trumpety-trump

Trump, trump, trump

Nel-lie the El-ephant packed her trunk

And trund-led back to the jungle

Off she went with a trumpety-trump

Trump, trump, trump

If you count the syllables in bold, you’ll find that there are exactly 30. Also remember not to get too involved in the song so you’re still able to put the correct amount of pressure on the chest.

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First Aid: How to Give CPR

If someone is unconscious, not breathing, or their heart has stopped, CPR will help to keep the blood and oxygen circulating through their body until help arrives.

Follow these steps .

1. CALL 999 or get someone to do it.

If the person is unresponsive call 911 or 112. Then start CPR right away.

2. OPEN the airway.

Place one hand on the person’s forehead and two fingers under their chin. Gently lift the chin and tilt their head back.

3. LOOK for signs of breathing.

Check if their chest is moving. Bend down and listen for breath escaping from their nose or mouth. See if you can feel any breath on your cheek. If there are no signs that the person is breathing, start CPR immediately.

4. PUMP the chest to stimulate the heart.

Push down in the centre of the chest to a depth of about 2 inches or 5 cms. Pump hard and fast 30 times at the rate of about 100 per minute, or faster than one per second. Think of the song “Stayin’ Alive” and push at the speed of the words “Ha, ha, ha, ha.”

5. BLOW in the mouth to encourage breathing.

After 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths. With the head tilted back, pinch the person’s nose and cover their mouth with yours. Blow in for 1 full second until you see their chest rise.

Continue CPR until the person responds or help arrives. If they recover, stop CPR and put them in the recovery position.

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First aid: How to deal with poisoning

Poisons can be swallowed, inhaled, injected or absorbed through the skin. If you know or suspect someone has taken or been exposed to poison, follow these steps:

1. Ask what, when and how. Find out what they have taken, when they took it, and how much they have taken.

2. Call 999 or get someone to do it. Depending on the type of poison involved, the person might need immediate medical attention. Give the medical or ambulance service the what, when and how information you have gathered.

3. While waiting for help to arrive, continue to check their breathing and make sure the airway is kept clear. If the person loses consciousness, place them in the recovery position. If they stop breathing, give them CPR.

Do not make the person try to vomit as this could damage their throat and block the airway. If they vomit naturally, collect some of the vomit in a bag and give it to the response team. This can help them identify the exact type of poison and treat it more effectively.

If you aren’t sure if the person has taken poison, look out for these signs:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stomach cramps
  • A burning sensation
  • Drowsiness or loss of consciousness
  • Seizures
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First aid: How to deal with Choking

Here’s what to do if someone is choking, their airway is blocked, and they are unable to breathe properly.

Ask them to cough and try to dislodge the blockage themselves. If this doesn’t work, follow the steps below to help clear the throat.

1. Bend the person forward. With the heel of your hand give them up to five sharp blows on the back, in the space between their shoulder blades. Check the person’s mouth to see if anything’s come up. If it has, ask them to remove it.

2. If blows to the back don’t work, return the person to the upright position again. Stand behind them, wrap your arms around them and link your hands together between their belly button and the bottom of the chest. Pull sharply inwards and upwards up to 5 times.

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 up to three times. If the person is still choking, call 999. Then repeat steps 1 and 2 until help arrives.

If the person is unable to breathe and loses consciousness, place them in the recovery position and begin CPR .

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First aid: Giving CPR to Children and Babies

If a child or baby is unconscious, check for signs of breathing. Watch to see if their chest rises. Listen for signs of breath. Bend down to see if you can feel breath on your cheek. If they are breathing, move them gently onto their side and tilt their head back. If they are not breathing, give them CPR as follows.

To give CPR to a child, follow these steps:

  1. Call 999 or get someone to do it.
  1. Give 5 rescue breaths.
    Tilt their head back, seal your mouth over their mouth, pinch their nose and blow 5 times.
  1. Give 30 chest compressions.
    Push firmly with one hand in the middle of their chest and then release.
  1. Give 2 rescue breaths, then repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths until help arrives.

To give CPR to a baby, follow these steps:

  1. Call 999 or get someone to do it.
  1. Give 5 rescue breaths.
    Tilt their head back, seal your mouth over their mouth, pinch their nose and blow 5 times.
  1. Give 30 chest compressions.
    Push firmly with two fingers in the middle of their chest and then release.
  1. Give 2 rescue breaths, then repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions and 2 rescue breaths until help arrives.
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First aid: How to Find a Training Provider in Manchester and the North West

Whether you run a business, work for someone else or spend most of your days at home, there will be times when emergencies arise. Accidents happen and they’re completely unpredictable. That’s why it makes sense to ensure that you or anyone you work with has adequate first aid training.

Training can be tailored to your particular situation, with courses lasting anywhere from just 2 hours to 3 days. You can get the skills you need by sending your team on a first aid course, or by getting the trainers to visit your workplace. On-site training offers you complete flexibility and convenience, letting you stagger the training so it causes minimal disruption to your business.

Health & Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 require all employers to have trained personnel in place to provide immediate attention to anyone injured or taken ill at work. But first aid is not just important in the workplace. What would you do if someone collapsed right in front of you?

Everyone should have basic lifesaving skills. These can be provided in a 1-on-1 format either in your own home or at our venue, or you can opt for a special 2-hour ‘Flash Training’ course in your own home for 6 or more people.

So if you want to brush up on your skills or become a qualified first aid instructor, Manchester First Aid Training has the perfect solution. We’re a UK Gold Approved First Aid Training Centre covering Stockport, Manchester and the North West.

Visit our website at http://www.manchesterfirstaidtraining.co.uk/ or phone 0844 68 53 999 to get the training that could help you save a life today.

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First aid: Dealing with Someone Who’s Unconscious 

If you come across an adult who is unconscious, find out if they’re breathing. If they are breathing, follow these steps:

  1. Open the airway by placing one hand on their forehead, two fingers under their chin, and tilting the head back gently. Then place them in the recovery position.
  1. If you suspect a spinal injury, keep their head and neck as still as possible.
  1. Call 999 or get someone to do it.

If they are not breathing, or if breathing stops, follow these steps:

  1. Call 999 or get someone to do it.
  1. Open the airway as explained above.
  1. Look for signs of breathing. Check if their chest is moving. Bend down and listen for breath escaping from their nose or mouth. See if you can feel any breath on your cheek. If there are no signs that the person is breathing, start CPR immediately.
  1. Push down in the centre of the chest to a depth of about 2 inches or 5 cms. Pump hard and fast 30 times at the rate of about 100 per minute, or faster than one per second. Think of the song “Stayin’ Alive” and push at the speed of the words “Ha, ha, ha, ha.”
  1. After 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths. With the head tilted back, pinch the person’s nose and cover their mouth with yours. Blow in for 1 full second until you see their chest rise.

Continue CPR using the 30 pumps to 2 breaths ratio until the person responds or help arrives. If they recover, stop CPR and put them in the recovery position.

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First aid: Dealing with Seizures

A seizure is a fit or convulsion. It happens when something interrupts the electrical activity in the brain, causing muscles to contract uncontrollably and often leading to unconsciousness. It’s a common sign of epilepsy.

Check the person’s responsiveness and that they are breathing. Protect them from hurting themselves during the fit, and also look out for:

  • Sudden loss of consciousness
  • A stiff body with an arching back
  • Difficult breathing
  • Jerky uncontrolled movements
  • Loss of bladder and bowel control

If you see someone having a seizure, here’s what you need to do:

  1. Don’t restrain or move them.
  2. Protect them from hurting themselves. Clear away any dangerous objects to keep them safe.
  3. Make a note of when the seizure started and how long it lasts.
  4. Place something soft under their head for protection  and loosen clothing around their neck.
  5. When the seizure stops, they may fall asleep.
  6. Once asleep, open their airway and check their breathing.
  7. If they’re breathing, put them in the recovery position.
  8. If they stop breathing, give CPR as you would for someone who’s unconscious and not breathing.

Call 999 if it’s their first seizure, if they’re having repeated seizures, if the fit lasts more than 5 minutes, or if they’re unconscious for more than 10 minutes.

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